Autogenous Tooth Transplantation: An Alternative to Dental Implant Placement?

• Cameron M.L. Clokie, DDS, PhD, FRCD(C), Dip. ABOMS •
• Deirdre M. Yau, B.Sc., DDS •
• Laura Chano, DDS •

Autogenous tooth transplantation, or autotransplantation, is the surgical movement of a tooth from one location in the mouth to another in the same individual. Once thought to be experimental, autotransplantation has achieved high success rates and is an excellent option for tooth replacement. Although the indications for autotransplantation are narrow, careful patient selection coupled with an appropriate technique can lead to exceptional esthetic and functional results. One advantage of this procedure is that placement of an implant-supported prosthesis or other form of prosthetic tooth replacement is not needed. This article highlights the indications for autogenous tooth transplantation using 3 case reports as examples. A review of the recommended surgical technique as well as success rates are also discussed.

© J Can Dent Assoc 2001; 67:92-6
This article has been peer reviewed.

The earliest reports of tooth transplantation involve slaves in ancient Egypt who were forced to give their teeth to their pharaohs.1 However, allotransplanta tion — transplantation of a tooth from one individual to another — was eventually abandoned because of problems of histocompatibility and replaced with autotransplantation. Autogenous tooth transplantation, or autotransplantation, is the surgical movement in one individual of a vital or endodontically treated tooth from its original location in the mouth to another site.2 Autogenous tooth transplantation was first well documented in 1954 by M.L. Hale. The major principles of his technique are still followed today.3 The science of autotransplantation has progressed, as evidenced by the high success rates reported in studies over the past decade.1,4-8 These studies demonstrate that autotransplantation is a viable option for tooth replacement for carefully selected patients.

While there are many reasons for autotransplanting teeth, tooth loss as a result of dental caries is the most common indication, especially when mandibular first molars are involved. First molars erupt early and are often heavily restored. Autotransplantation in this situation involves the removal of a third molar which may then be transferred to the site of an unrestorable first molar.2 Other conditions in which transplantation can be considered include tooth agenesis (especially of premolars and lateral incisors), traumatic tooth loss, atopic eruption of canines, root resorption, large endodontic lesions, cervical root fractures, localized juvenile periodontitis as well as other pathologies.2,9-11 Successful transplantation depends on specific requirements of the patient, the donor tooth, and the recipient site.

Candidate Criteria
Patient selection is very important for the success of autotransplantation. Candidates must be in good health, able to follow post-operative instructions, and available for follow-up visits. They should also demonstrate an acceptable level of oral hygiene and be amenable to regular dental care. Most importantly, the patients must have a suitable recipient site and donor tooth. Patient cooperation and comprehension are extremely important to ensure predictable results.

Recipient Site Criteria
The most important criteria for success involving the recipient site is adequacy of bone support. There must be sufficient alveolar bone support in all dimensions with adequate attached keratinized tissue to allow for stabilization of the transplanted tooth. In addition, the recipient site should be free from acute infection and chronic inflammation.12

Donor Tooth Criteria
The donor tooth should be positioned such that extraction will be as atraumatic as possible. Abnormal root morphology, which makes tooth removal exceedingly difficult and may involve tooth sectioning, is contraindicated for this surgery.1 Teeth with either open or closed apices may be donors; however, the most predictable results are obtained with teeth having between one-half to two-thirds completed root development.1,6,7,9,12-16 Surgical manipulation of teeth with less than one-half root formation may be too traumatic and could compromise further root development, stunting maturation or altering morphology. When root development is greater than two-thirds, the increased length may cause encroachment on vital structures such as the maxillary sinus or the inferior alveolar nerve.13 Furthermore, a tooth with complete or near complete root formation will generally require root canal therapy, while a tooth with an open apex will remain vital and should continue root development after transplantation. In the latter case, successful transplantation without the need for further endodontic therapy is usually seen.

Case Reports
Indications for tooth transplantation are discussed in the following 3 case reports. All 3 patients presented to the University of Toronto’s dental faculty.

Case 1
A 17-year-old male orthodontic patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial surgery department for the evaluation of an unerupted tooth 47. A panoramic radiograph revealed horizontally impacted teeth 47 and 48 (Fig. 1), complete root formation of tooth 47 and incomplete root formation of tooth 48. It was felt that orthodontic uprighting of tooth 47 was not possible and that it would be difficult to bring tooth 48 into an ideal position using an orthodontic approach. As tooth 48 demonstrated approximately two-thirds root formation, it was felt that transplantation of that tooth to position 47 could address this patient’s problem, and the tooth was successfully transplanted.

Case 2
A 17-year-old female presented to the emergency clinic complaining of pain associated with tooth 37. A periapical radiograph showed extensive destruction of the crown of this tooth as a result of dental caries (Fig. 2). Examination led to a diagnosis of pulpal necrosis with periapical extension. Following consultation with the endodontic and prosthodontic departments, it was felt that the extent of the caries would make restoration of the tooth very difficult, if not impossible. Since the radiograph showed that tooth 38 had two-thirds root development, the decision was made to transplant tooth 38 to the space left following the extraction of tooth 37.

Case 3
In 1995, an 11-year-old female presented complaining of mobility associated with tooth 46. The patient was lost to follow-up until December 1998, at which time she was referred to the graduate periodontal clinic for a complete examination. The patient was diagnosed with localized juvenile periodontitis, and removal of tooth 46 was advised due to a poor prognosis (Fig. 3). Otherwise, the overall prognosis was fair; all the other teeth could be retained and maintained for a prolonged period of time. Tooth transplantation was suggested to manage this patient’s problem. Periapical radiographs of teeth 38 and 48 were taken. As the root development of tooth 48 appeared greater than two-thirds (Fig. 4a) and that of 38 was less (Fig. 4b), tooth 38 was chosen as the donor tooth.
While no long-term follow-up is available for these cases, the six-month post-operative radiograph for case 3 (Fig. 5) shows good bone fill at the recipient site, continued development of the roots of the transplanted tooth, and development of the periodontal ligament space, which is characteristic of an appropriately healing autotransplant.

Surgical Technique
The procedure for tooth transplantation is usually no more traumatic for the patient than the removal of impacted third molars. Depending on patient preference, local anesthesia alone or in conjunction with some form of sedation is sufficient for the surgical procedure. Once sufficient anesthesia is obtained, the tooth at the recipient site is extracted and the recipient socket prepared. Occlusal and periapical radiographs of the donor tooth should be used to determine its labiolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Many practitioners use this information to fabricate an acrylic replica of the tooth to be transplanted. This replica allows them to prepare the recipient site using a guide with dimensions similar to those required for the donor tooth. Next, the donor tooth is carefully removed to ensure minimal trauma to the periodontal ligament. When the donor tooth is unerupted, extraction involves flap elevation, bone removal, and gentle removal of the follicle from around the crown. Traumatic injury to the root surface of the donor tooth will impair the success of the transplant due to inadequate periodontal ligament regeneration. This is important for integration at the recipient site.4 Once removed, the donor tooth should be handled as little as possible and the practitioner should be careful to touch only the crown. The tooth is then placed in the recipient socket. Minimal delay between extraction and transplantation is important to ensure maintenance of periodontal membrane vitality. If further adjustment of the recipient socket is required, the donor tooth can be easily stored in its original socket.

Once the transplanted tooth is in its final position, occlusion is checked and, if needed, adjusted using a high-speed finishing bur. The tooth should be in slight infraocclusion to allow it to erupt into proper occlusion over the next few months. When proper positioning is obtained, the tooth can be stabilized with a suture splint for one to 2 weeks.17 Alternatively, adhesive resin, light polymerizing resin, or a temporary bridge of autopolymerizing resin and wire splint can be used.14

Post-operative instructions and sequelae are similar to those following the removal of an impacted tooth.2 A soft diet should be followed for a couple of days after surgery and the patient should be instructed to avoid mastication on the transplant. Patients should be instructed to maintain optimal oral hygiene. Some investigators feel that the patient should rinse with chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse as an adjunct to oral hygiene.1 Patients may also be given perioperative and post-operative antibiotics.1,4,6,14,17
Many clinicians recommend that patients be seen the day after surgery to ensure the transplant has retained its new position, the splint is stable, and that swelling, edema, and hematoma formation are within normal limits.15 The patient should then be seen at weekly intervals for one month if there are no complications. After one month, the patient should be seen every 6 months for 2 years.18 During this period the tooth should be evaluated for the onset of pulpal breakdown seen as intrapulpal calcification, periapical radiolucency, or root resorption. For vital transplants of developing teeth with open apices, endodontic treatment of the transplant is not required as these teeth can be revascularized and reinnervated.2 However, endodontic treatment is always required for transplants of mature teeth with complete root formation. Endodontic therapy begins approximately one month post-operatively with instrumenting of the canals and filling with calcium hydroxide. Gutta percha filling is completed 3 to 6 months post-transplantation.4

The literature reports excellent success rates following tooth transplantation when the appropriate protocol is followed. Andreasen5 found 95% and 98% long-term survival rates for incomplete and complete root formation of 370 transplanted premolars observed over 13 years. Lundberg and Isaksson6 had success in 94% and 84% of cases for open and closed apices respectively in 278 autotransplanted teeth over 5 years. Kugelberg7 achieved success rates of 96% and 82% for 45 immature and mature teeth transplanted into the upper incisor region over 4 years. Cohen1 showed success in the ranges of 98-99% over 5 years and 80-87% over 10 years with transplanted anterior teeth with closed apices. Nethander4 found 5-year success rates of over 90% for 68 mature teeth transplanted with a 2-stage technique. Josefsson8 found 4-year success rates of 92% and 82% respectively for premolars with incomplete and complete root formation.
These consistently high success rates are a contrast to the variable results reported in many older studies. Schwartz and others16 yielded success rates of only 76.2% at 5 years and 59.6% at 10 years. Similarly, Pogrel13 found that his success rate for 416 autotransplanted teeth was 72%. However, other investigators of that era had more positive results. Kristerson,11 for example, obtained a success rate of 93% when 100 autotransplanted premolars were observed for a mean of 6.3 years.

The factors that lead to success have been extensively investigated. The most significant determinant for survival of the transplant is the continued vitality of the periodontal membrane. In cases where the periodontal ligament is traumatized during transplantation, external root resorption and ankylosis is often noted.1,13 Schwartz16 tried to link the loss of the graft to specific prognostic factors and found that success rates are highest when donor teeth are premolars, have one-half to two-thirds root development, and experience minimal trauma and limited extraoral time during surgery. The experience of the surgeon also affects the success because this procedure is technique-sensitive.

Although retention of the tooth and restoration of the edentulous space is the desired outcome for patients, more specific parameters have been used to measure the health of the surviving transplant. These parameters include marginal periodontal attachment, mobility, pain, root resorption, root development, sensitivity to percussion, gingival pocket depth, presence of gingivitis, and presence of fistulae.4,19,20 However, these studies are difficult to compare because each used different measures to determine success.

The most common cause of failure of the autotransplant is chronic root resorption.15 More specifically, the causes of tooth loss following transplantation from most common to least common are inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption (ankylosis), marginal periodontitis, apical periodontitis, caries, and trauma.16 Inflammatory resorption may become evident after 3 or 4 weeks, while replacement resorption may not become evident until 3 or 4 months after transplantation. The incidence of both types of resorption can be decreased with atraumatic extraction of the donor tooth and immediate transfer to the recipient site to minimize the risk of injury to the periodontal ligament.1

Although autotransplantation has not been established as a traditional means of replacing a missing tooth, the procedure warrants more consideration. Recent studies clearly demonstrate that autotransplantation of teeth is as successful as endosseous dental implant placement. Minimum acceptable success rates for endosseous titanium dental implants are 85% after 5 years and 80% after 10 years.21 For younger patients, autotransplantation may also be considered as a temporary measure. The transplant can replace missing teeth to ensure preservation of bone until growth has ceased and then, if necessary, the patient can become a candidate for implants.22 With appropriate patient selection, and presence of a suitable donor tooth and recipient site, autogenous transplantation should be considered as a viable option for treatment of an edentulous space.

Dr. Clokie is head of the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery at the University of Toronto.
Dr. Yau is a dental intern at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ont.
Dr. Chano is resident in periodontics, University of Toronto.
Correspondence to: Dr. Cameron M.L. Clokie, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1G6. E-mail:
The authors have no declared financial interest.


  1. Cohen AS, Shen TC, Pogrel MA. Transplanting teeth successfully: autografts and allografts that work. JADA 1995; 126(4):481-5.
  2. Leffingwell CM. Autogenous tooth transplantation: a therapeutic alternative. Dent Surv 1980; 56(2):22-3, 26.
  3. Hale ML. Autogenous transplants. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1956; 9:76-83.
  4. Nethander G. Periodontal conditions of teeth autogenously transplanted by a two-stage technique. J Periodontal Res 1994; 29(4):250-8.
  5. Andreasen JO, Paulsen HU, Yu Z, Bayer T, Schwartz O. A long-term study of 370 autotransplanted premolars. Part II. Tooth survival and pulp healing subsequent to transplantation. Eur J Orthod 1990; 12(1):14-24.
  6. Lundberg T, Isaksson S. A clinical follow-up study of 278 autotransplanted teeth. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1996; 34(2):181-5.
  7. Kugelberg R, Tegsjo U, Malmgren O. Autotransplantation of 45 teeth to the upper incisor region in adolescents. Swed Dent J 1994; 18(5):165-72.
  8. Josefsson E, Brattstrom V, Tegsjo U, Valerius-Olsson H. Treatment of lower second premolar agenesis by autotransplantation: four-year evaluation of eighty patients. Acta Odontol Scand 1999; 57(2):111-5.
  9. Kahnberg KE. Autotransplantation of teeth: indications for transplantation with a follow-up of 51 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1987; 16(5):577-85.
  10. Tegsjo U, Valerius-Olsson H, Frykholm A, Olgart K. Clinical evaluation of intra-alveolar transplantation of teeth with cervical root fractures. Swed Dent J 1987; 11(6):235-50.
  11. Kristerson L, Lagerstrom L. Autotransplantation of teeth in cases with agenesis or traumatic loss of maxillary incisors. Eur J Orthod 1991; 13(6):486-92.
  12. Northway WM, Konigsberg S. Autogenic tooth transplantation: the “state of the art”. Am J Orthod 1980; 77(2):146-62.
  13. Pogrel MA. Evaluation of over 400 autogenous tooth transplants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1987; 45(3):205-11.
  14. Akiyama Y, Fukuda H, Hashimoto K. A clinical and radiographic study of 25 autotransplanted third molars. J Oral Rehabil 1988; 25(8):640-4.
  15. Robinson PJ, Grossman LI. Tooth Transplantation. In: Robinson PJ, Guernsey LJ, eds. Clinical transplantation in dental specialties. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co.; 1980. p. 77-88.
  16. Schwartz O, Bergmann P, Klausen B. Autotransplantation of human teeth: a life-table analysis of prognostic factors. Int J Oral Surg 1985; 14(3):245-58.
  17. Andreasen JO, Paulsen HU, Yu Z, Ahlquist R, Bayer T, Schwartz O. A long-term study of 370 autotransplanted premolars. Part I. Surgical procedures and standardized techniques for monitoring healing. Eur J Orthod 1990; 12(1):3-13.
  18. Tsukiboshi M. Autogenous tooth transplantation: a reevaluation. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1993; 13(2):120-49.
  19. Andreasen JO, Paulsen HU, Yu Z, Schwartz O. A long-term study of 370 autotransplanted premolars. Part III. Periodontal healing subsequent to transplantation. Eur J Orthod 1990; 12(1):25-37.
  20. Andreasen JO, Paulsen HU, Yu Z, Bayer T. A long-term study of 370 autotransplanted premolars. Part IV. Root development subsequent to transplantation. Eur J Orthod 1990; 12(1):38-50.
  21. Smith DE, Zarb GA. Criteria for success of osseointegrated endosseous implants. J Prosthet Dent 1989; 62(5):567-72.
  22. Thomas S, Turner SR, Sandy R. Autotransplantation of teeth: is there a role? Br J Orthod 1998; 25(4):275-82.

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bone marrow transplant

Bone Marrow Transplant

Medical science and research has done a great deal to extend the lives that we live and also to improve the quality of our lives. There are many diseases and disorders from the past that no longer exist today because of the research and preventative measures that we are able to take against them. Many one time vaccines are able to protect us from crippling and deadly diseases that only a few years ago affected millions.

Along with preventative measures there are also surgeries and transplants that can be performed to prolong the lives of individuals with disease. Some of these procedures have been around long enough that we have lost the awe and wonder that should go along with the procedures. A dear friend of ours had to have bone marrow transplant. Her brother was a perfect match and was in good physical condition to under go the procedure. He was so excited to help his sister feel better that he gladly with stood the pain that goes with a bone marrow transplant.

There are many other transplants that are available to people. Kidney transplants have become almost a routine procedure. Heart surgeries that used to be performed only in select hospitals across the country are now done daily in most hospitals that are equipped for surgery. Diagnostic testing is starting to resemble some of the procedures that were shown in Star Trek. Science and medicine are giving many people the chance for longer lives and improved living conditions. Most people that have experienced these life saving and life prolonging procedures have an awe for medicine and a strong faith in a higher power.

bone marrow transplant siblings

The brother and sister checked into the medical facility together. They were in operating rooms next door to each other. The brother had the bone marrow extracted from his hip area. The marrow was then injected into his sister. This is a very simplified explanation of a very in-depth process. Both of them were hospitalized for several days and then had to wait for two weeks to have the preliminary results whether or not the bone more transplant was successful. Everyone that knows them waited impatiently for the results. This was the last procedure that was available to her to prolong her life. When the initial results came in the news was encouraging. Her blood count had risen and she reported feeling stronger. Her brother healed from the bone marrow transplant and was able to resume his normal activities. He is so hopeful that he had given his sister the gift of a longer life.

Sometimes it is just advice that is sought prior to considering any transpant. No urological or other transplant advice over the phone or the Internet takes the place of a close, personal consultation with the urologist or doctor. Nonetheless, there are times when outside research can help. No one really has the time to make an appointment every time something seems to be going wrong, and sometimes it is difficult to tell whether something is a minor viral infection or a potentially serious disease. This is why getting quality transplant advice is so crucial for people – particularly parents. Whether you get your advice from a doctor or urologist over a helpline or go to an online advice column, you can still gain a lot from it.

There are different kinds of advice medical experts will dispense depending on the organ transplant circumstances. For general disorders, nearly everyone has looked at remedies for colds, flus, and other minor inconveniences from time to time. There are many treatments, such as drinking hot tea, eating chicken noodle soup, and taking long, steamy baths or showers, that thousands of Americans swear by every time they get sick. Although none of these have the sanction of any official medical body, they are nonetheless known to help people feel better but are far separated from urological organ transplant. And feeling better, after all, is what it is all about.

There are times, however, when you need something more serious from your medical advice about medical problems or the need for a transplant. For example, sore throats are often a cause for concern. Although the advice doctors will usually give is to come in and let a professional check it out, in reality your average sore throat is nothing to worry about. Going to a medical advice website and listing your symptoms is usually enough to be able to tell what kind of infection you have. If your throat only hurts when you swallow and doesn’t look raw or have pus spots, you probably have a minor viral infection or simple throat irritation from excessive drainage. If it feels constricted, hurts all the time, looks white and splotchy, you may have strep throat and should come in to the doctor immediately. However, if you feel that your urology condition may require a transplant or something like a living urology kidney transplant donor, make an appointment.

Some hospitals provide medical advice halfway between a doctors consultation and an online advice database but don’t deal with transplant issues. On my health insurance, you can call the hospital and describe your symptoms to a medical nurse. She will know right away what it is likely to be, and whether or not you need to go in and get checked out. This saves the doctor time, you money, and everyone a bunch of inconvenience.

Lymphoma Cancer Bone Marrow Transplant

Outside of the urology realm, we discuss another need for transplants. Lymphoma cancer is a condition that attacks the immune system. The cells otherwise known as lymphocytes are affected. The white blood cells, which aid the body in fighting diseases, are contained in the lymph. When they become cancerous, the body’s immune system goes down and people become prone to attacks by different diseases. This disease is caused by over multiplying of the lymph cells. This is abnormal as these cells increase too fast and form a tumor. In normal situations, the duplication or growth of cells is controlled.

The two types of this cancer are the Hodgkin lymphoma and no-Hodgkin’s lymphoma popularly known as the NHL. These further split into many other types, which stand at thirty in total. The more common of these two is the Hodgkin’s disease. It has a Reed-Sternberg cell that differentiates it from the other cancers. Unlike the other cancers, the Hodgkin’s cancer is limited in how it spreads in the body. It is more concentrated in the lymph nodes. The NHL tends to affect other parts of the body that do not necessarily have the lymph nodes.

The causative factor is not well documented though it is linked to viral infections. It is important to note that some people are more susceptible to lymphoma cancer. It is most common in white males who are older. People with an immune disorder through inheritance are also susceptible. People with AIDS, autoimmune diseases and those who eat lots of fats and meats are also most likely to acquire this cancer. Lymphoma cancer registers itself in the body ion the form of a tumor. These tumors are painless and could appear in the groin, under the armpits or in the neck. People with these lumps will then experience a drastic weight loss, fever, and sweaty nights. Other symptoms will include itching, vomiting, abdominal pain, red patches on the skin as well as nausea. Several tests are done after these symptoms are registered and they confirm if it is lymphoma cancer. The doctor identifies which type of a cancer it is and this helps in prompting the right treatment.

Treatment is done using the chemotherapy procedure. Other procedures used to treat it include bone marrow transplant or radiotherapy. Treatment is dictated by the type of this cancer, its history, and the stage where it is now. Some overgrown cancers are hard to treat. The age of the patient is also important in the treatment process. The doctor first establishes the grade of the lymphoma cancer. If it is low grade, treatment may be put on hold until the cancer registers well. In this case, the symptoms are not pronounced as the cells grow quite slowly making it hard to treat. Once the symptoms have registered themselves, chemotherapy and radiation therapy is introduced. This cancer responds well to treatment though it keeps recurring thus making it incurable. If the cancer is in the intermediate or high grades, the doctor may administer chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery to remove the tumor. This however depends with the stage of the disease. When the therapies are combined, there is a high probability that the treatment will be successful.

Living Urology Kidney Transplant Donor

What shows love better than the husband turning kidney donor for his wife when she struggles for her life? What happens though when a marriage like this goes bust? That’s what happened in the case of Dr. Richard Batista – a man who loved his wife enough to turn kidney donor for her. He then found out about how she had been unfaithful to him. And then he sued her asking for his kidney back. Apparently, the marriage was already foundering when he gave his kidney; he did it to try to get her to stay.

Being a living organ donor is supposed to be an act that comes out of an incredible amount of personal generosity (not an act of manipulation as seen above). People who feel that we live in a terrible world where nothing matters except money, certainly can take heart in the number of anonymous living donors there are. These are people who will apply to just give a body part away without even knowing whom it goes to. If one really wishes to make one’s contribution to the world, and there is no better way one can think of other than to turn altruistic donor (that’s the technical term for a donor who donates anonymously), how would one go about it? There’s a process.

united network organ sharing urologist

The first thing one needs to do to turn altruistic kidney donor is to contact the nearest transplant center for living donations. The donor care coordinator will usually have the whole process mapped out. The United Network for Organ Sharing has a spectacular website with all kinds of information for people considering turning living kidney donor. They walk you through what it takes to turn donor – the mental preparedness it takes, the first steps towards applying, the tests involved, the risks involved, and everything.  Urology is the segment of medical care that concentrates on medical and surgical problems in the female and male urinary tract as well as the reproductive organs in the male. Organs that urology deals with are the reproductive organs in the male (penis, testes, vas deferens, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles) and urethra, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, and urinary bladder.

urologist kidney transplant
urologist kidney transplant

One of the most common areas of worry that people have considering a living organ donation has to do with how they can only donate once. What are they to do, they wonder, if they find later on that there is a son, daughter, a parent, a spouse, who needs an organ from them. They hate to think that they will be left with nothing to give. The liver is an organ that grows back after you donate a part. But you can’t donate a second time even if you’ve re-grown it. As far as the kidneys concerned, you can only donate once. And this is something that one has to live with.

The thing about being the living donor is that you get the satisfaction of knowing not only that you’re responsible for someone being alive today, but that you’ve set the whole Pay it Forward system in motion. It’s true – when you donate anonymously to someone, someone in their family is so overwhelmed with gratitude that they decide to do it themselves. That’s what it says in a Wall Street Journal article by columnist Rhonda L. Rundle. What could be more pleasant than such a prospect?

Breast Cancer Stem Cell Transplant

Breast cancer treatment is evolving with each passing day. Every new invention in this field usually represents a ray of hope for the millions of women and some men who have to undergo the pain of loosing a breast or both to the disease. Sometimes, this amounts to loss of lives. Today, there are five standard breast cancer treatments adopted by medics. They include surgery, radio therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy. Still, there are other types of treatments in clinical trial stages. Such include sentinel lymph-node biopsy and stem-cell transplant, which has to be preceded by high doses of chemotherapy treatment.

Surgery is the most prevalent breast cancer treatment. Surgeons conduct a lumpectomy to remove the lump or tumor and adjacent tissue or partial mastectomy whereby, part of the infected breast and normal tissue surrounding it is removed. Lymph nodes are also taken from the underarm for purposes of checking if they have cancer cells. Total mastectomy involves the removal of the entire breast, while modified radical mastectomy involves the removal of the breast, lymph nodes and some chest-wall muscles where the cancer may have spread. Radical mastectomy is more like modified radical mastectomy except that all lymph nodes and more chest -wall muscles are removed. Usually, surgery is followed with radiotherapy, hormone therapy of chemotherapy in order to kill any cancer cells left in the body.

Radiation therapy is another common cancer treatment that kills cancer cells or reduces their growth rate using high energy x-rays. Radiation therapy is either administered externally using a machine that sends radiations towards the cancer, or internally through radioactive substances passed through catheters, seeds, wires or needles. Such are placed near or directly into the cancer. The choice of treatment that a doctor chooses depends on the severity and development stage of each cancer.

Breast cancer treatment through chemotherapy refers to the use of drugs to stop the cancer from developing either by killing the cancerous cells or through inhibiting them from dividing. In systemic chemotherapy, the drugs can either be injected into the blood stream or taken orally. In regional chemotherapy however, the drugs are placed directly on the body cavity, spinal column or the affected organ. Just like in radiotherapy, the treatment approaches in chemotherapy mainly depend on severity of the cancer, the type and development stage of the disease.

Hormone therapy-based breast cancer treatment removes specific hormones from the body or blocks their action for purposes of stopping the cancer cells from growing. Ovarian ablation is one such treatment that stops ovaries from producing estrogen. Other hormone therapy treatments have tamoxifen and aromatose inhibitors.

Targeted therapy treats cancer using drugs that identify and attack cancer cells without causing harm to normal cells. Tyrosine-Kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies are the two common types of targeted therapy breast cancer treatments. No matter the type of breast cancer treatment that is used on a person, regular medical checkups will be required in future in order to gauge if the treatment managed to arrest the spread of the disease completely.

Liver Cancer Transplants

Liver cancer is also known as hepatocellular carcinoma and refers to a cancer that affects the liver. Other names used to describe this condition include hepatoma and primary liver cancer. The liver constitutes of up to 80% of hepatocyte cells, which make up the liver tissue. These hepatocytes therefore account for 95% of cancers that manifest themselves in the liver. These cancers are known as carcinomas or hepatocellular. Other cells available in the liver include fat storing cells, bile ducts, and blood vessels. Liver cancer does not only originate from the liver but may also have originated from other body parts. These include the lungs, stomach, colon, breast, and pancreas. These cancers are referred to as secondary liver cancers or metastatic cancers.

liverAccording to statistics, cancer of the liver is rated the fifth among the world’s most common cancers. This condition is life threatening and studies also show that many deaths of people with liver cancer occur yearly. This cancer is most common in South Africa, Korea, Hong Kong, Japan, Mozambique, and Taiwan. The main causes of this cancer include vinyl chloride exposure and risk factors such as liver flukes, liver cirrhosis, or chronic hepatitis. Vinyl chloride is a colorless combustible gas that is used in manufacturing as a chemical compound. Other names used to refer to this toxic chemical are chloroethylene, chloroethene, or ethylene monochloride. Liver cancer is characterized by several symptoms such as loss of appetite, loss of weight, a painful right upper abdomen, and jaundice, breast swell in males as well as problems in clotting blood. This failure for blood to clot leads to skin bruises and bleeding in the intestines.

Liver cancers are diagnosed through blood tests, radiological imaging, and tumor screening. These tests must be rigorous since it is hard to diagnose the condition. An Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most commonly used cancer test since the other methods are not very reliable. Liver cancer can be treated but the treatment depends on the age of the cancer, affected organs and age of patient. Some of the treatments that may be used include chemotherapy, surgery, radiation, vaccine therapy, immunotherapy, and liver transplant. These medications may however come with side effects and it is important for people to know them. For instance, chemotherapy may exhibit side effects such as insomnia, constipation, fatigue, mouth sores, nausea, and delirium.

Liver transplant is problematic for various reasons. The cost for the transplant surgeon is high. The hospital charges where the transplant occurs and recovery starts is high. It takes a donor liver.

Using the canelim capsules with chemotherapy is recommended as they enhance efficacy by killing the cancer cells. They also retard the growth of the tumor and improve the body’s immunity. Cancer treatment methods help in reducing the effects of the cancer and improve the life of the patient. Surgery may however not be a good option since the cancer is bound to spread to other body organs and this can cause death. An early detection of cancer may lead to successful treatment and it is therefore very important for people to consult their physicians the instance they exhibit the symptoms. Cancer spreads fast to other body organs making it hard to control while in late stages. In that case, a transplant may be the only viable option.

Infection Diseases Huge Hospital Problem

We first heard of them when the war in Iraq started seven years ago. Soldiers wounded in battle would come home with a strange infection – diseases that would just not yield to any antibiotic the doctors had. News of bacteria that are resistant to all drugs, has been picking up ever since, with the CDC putting out alarming statistics every now and then, like the one that says that nearly 100,000 patients at hospitals die each year in this country, from strange bacterial infections that laugh at the strongest drugs we throw at them. Another statistic from Europe too, says that there are about 16,000 dead each year in their hospitals from these. And then there are the horror stories we hear from her friends and relatives.

This comes into play especially when major body intrusive surgeries such as transplants are conducted. Transplanting organs opens the body to whatever atmosphere exists in the surgery room. Whether bladder, kidney, liver or other urological transplant procedure, the risks are more substantial that less intrusive surgeries. Even if transplant is not required, the intrusion is severe for internal organs as shown in this video:

Take my father for instance; he was a healthy 80-year-old man, who loved to go on 5 mile walks every day. He just has this lump on his ankle, and he had to go in, for a simple biopsy. They just punched out a little sample of flesh from his ankle, and since he is over 80, kept him in overnight for observation. The wound never quite healed, and ever since he came home, he kept having to go back for one kind of painful condition around the wound or another. Pretty soon, they discovered that the bacteria was beginning to poison his blood. They called the bacteria Acinetobacter Baumannii – apparently a real tough customer whose reaction to the toughest drugs is to turn over and settle in comfortably. The hospital infection, diseases that strike you when you’re weak and vulnerable in hospital, have been known of for some time. Doctors have done a lot of work publicizing one particular hospital disease – MRSA – and they’ve even found a cure for it.

infect diseaseThe super-bugs like Acinetobacter receive not a fraction of the attention MRSA does. And people are dropping like flies through it. These new bacteria, and they call them Gram-negative bacteria, don’t yield to any known drug. The drug companies aren’t that interested in going out after them either – and yes, there is more than one. So there is someone an hospital and if he gets one of these new gram-negative bacteria infection diseases, what is it that the doctors do to treat it, as there is no drug that quite controls them? An Iraq veteran who suffered considerable injuries in a roadside bomb, while he was recuperating from his injuries back in the US, had the bad luck to catch one of these new bugs. His health deteriorated so much, that the doctors decided on the only option in these cases, administering a dangerously powerful antibiotic, that was banned for general use, perhaps 40 years ago. A drug that’s been out of circulation for so long is perhaps the only hope against these rapidly evolving bacteria. The bacteria haven’t had a chance to get used to them.

However, the soldier found that his kidneys began to fail from poisoning by those antibiotics. The doctor advised that he go on with the treatment, and opt for a kidney transplant later if necessary. The soldier balked at such an extreme step, called doctor crazy, and took his own counsel. He stopped those dangerous drugs, and he hoped he would recover on its own. Luckily for him, sometimes, things like a stubborn infection, diseases you get at the hospital, can sort themselves out given enough time. For him, this actually did work out. Now at a hospital, he contributes time to an NGO that tries to spread awareness that doctors need to use fewer antibiotics in general. That’s what has caused all of this in the first place. The entire bacteria kingdom is so used to our antibiotics, that they have grown accustomed. Gram-negative bacteria are beginning to gain the ability to infect people outside of hospitals too. This is about the right time to act.

transplant emotional stress

Upcoming Transplant Emotional Stress

All of us experience some degree of emotional stress on a fairly frequent basis and nothing will exacerbate this more than knowing that you have an organ transplant in the future. Our fast-paced lives and stringent schedules seem to invite stress. Never enough time, financial worries, job stress and family problems all contribute. The fact is that emotional stress wears away at your good health. It can affect your immune system response negatively, making you more vulnerable to illness. If you have certain existing medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, emotional stress isn’t going to help. Given that we’re all subject to this type of stress, at least occasionally, the name of the game is to keep the stress to a minimum. Here are a few tried and true ways to reduce stress of an emotional nature.

Your first step should be to assess your personality type. If you’re the laid-back type, you have an advantage, in that it’s easier for you to shrug off minor stresses. However, if you’re the hyper type, tending towards anxiety and nervousness, stressful situations tend to build on one another, leaving you a nervous wreck in very short order, while also significantly affecting your health. This may become unmanageable if you have an organ transplant scheduled. In either case, once you’ve made this self assessment, you can better judge how many of these stress reducing ideas you’ll need to pursue to get on a better footing with life.

It’s a good idea to keep a log where you record situations that bring on emotional stress. This helps you identify your personal ‘triggers’. A small notebook is all you need. Just a brief description is all you need to later recall the entire event. For example, ‘forgot to pay the phone bill’ or ‘conflict with Mary at work’ should suffice. You’ll find that when you make a note, over time you’ll start to see patterns which reveal characteristics of your own behavior which may consistently lead to stressing out. You may find that, due to procrastinating, you’re frequently late accomplishing tasks that exacerbate your stress.

Other than the life changing situations such as a necessary liver, bladder or other crucial organ that requires a transplant, there are occasions when emotional stress is warranted, such as worrying over a child’s illness. The problem with this type of stress is that it has a ‘snowball’ effect when you allow every little thing to pile up in one indistinguishable mass of worry and you soon find yourself overwhelmed. Your log can help to sort out the issues over which you have control. Procrastination, for example, can lead to many unnecessary hassles. In this case, by making a calendar of events you need to attend to before a problem arises can go a long way to reducing emotional stress.

On the other hand, your log may simply reveal that, due to an anxious and nervous disposition, minor stresses form the majority of your entries. In this case, it’s most often helpful to focus on getting rid of some of that nervous energy. Some people just have ‘energy to burn’, quite literally. Implement a program of regular exercise. A brisk walk in the fresh air twice daily works wonders for staving off bouts of emotional stress. Some people find that rigorous cleaning around the house (think cleaning the oven, vacuuming, washing walls) serves to alleviate stress in two ways: you burn off excess energy and gain the satisfaction of a visibly cleaner home.

Hobbies of a less physical nature, such as reading, drawing or knitting are good techniques for reducing stress, especially if your health doesn’t permit excessively vigorous physical activities. Your object here is to allow your mind to be occupied with something you enjoy, rather than letting yourself stew over emotional issues which really aren’t significant in the long run. This method helps you take a step back, relax and put things in perspective. Think about your post-operative recovery and the new loan on life from your transplant you will now have.

Other primarily mental ‘exercises’ that prove helpful to many people include meditation and prayer, which also gets your mind out of the immediate. Giving yourself a spiritual lift has an added bonus, in that your body and mind relax. Practicing yoga is another good way to reduce emotional stress and which doesn’t put undue stress on your body, while clearing your mind, leaving you feeling refreshed and ultimately, more limber and fit.

Last, if you’re not the laid-back type, you may want to consider reducing your consumption of caffeine. While you may love coffee, the caffeine can contribute mightily to an undesirable rush of adrenalin, which only worsens your susceptibility to physical and emotional stress. Try swapping an herbal tea or a glass of juice for that third cup of coffee.

Although emotional stress is unfortunately a fact of life for most of us, you can certainly minimize it, using all of the methods outlined here. You’ll find that your emotional balance improves, as well as feeling more energetic, sleeping better and experiencing fewer illnesses. To your good health!